They argued that this ensured that the peer-support intervention was welcomed as part of a multidisciplinary approach to diabetes care. Cocreation of training materials contains the concept of partnering with participants, and both cocreation and partnership were related to increased ownership. . Propositional statement Criteria for what is meant by a peer need to be appropriate for the programme and context. The mural ‘Les Trois Ages’ by Gonzalo Borondo, pictured above, loomed over us as we ate. The nature of the proposed intervention, the degree of acceptance for it, and the sensitivity and acceptability of the proposed health messages could either align, or conflict, with community and personal values. . For example, the opportunity to gain additional qualifications or credentials was viewed positively because of the potential to enhance future employment opportunities. They suggested that the use of the word ‘training’ might have negative connotations for some individuals. most [bilingual health advocates] held low status positions in complex multiprofessional hierarchies and had neither the authority nor the resources to set up and run such groups . The recruitment process can influence the likelihood of a community engaging with a particular initiative, both in terms of the coverage of the initiative and in the subsequent quality of interactions. elderly persons who were used as teachers and as demonstrators in the colorectal cancer presentation . In cases when the sense of community is more diffuse or less tangible – for example communities defined by demographics – recruitment becomes more complex as potential PSs within the community may not necessarily have relationships with the target group. .’.79 Similarly, authors from the Smoking Fag Ends cluster reported that support materials for the programme were developed by volunteers with the assistance of their participants,120 whereas the authors from the Healthy Living Older People cluster reported that PSs were involved in developing the training manual for each peer educator. Recruitment in such cases focuses on identifying and recruiting individuals within the network who have credibility as a PS. . Programmes may have different underpinning rationales that determine appropriate recruitment, for example an initiative may seek to broaden the representation across all sectors of the community, it may identify a target community opportunistically or according to convenience or it may target those perceived to be at greatest risk (from the health problem) or seek to address perceived inequalities. The propositions for recruitment (Table 10) both build upon and add to the propositions that were identified at the stage of programme design. . Propositional statement Recruitment is successful when a connection is established with potential PSs. People need to be able to find someone to ask questions of – what do you do, how did you get to do this? This meant that PSs were able to begin their training as soon as they were recruited, at a time when they were motivated to learn more about their role and its requirements: ‘Programmes of education also needed to be organized on an ongoing “rolling” basis to ensure that new recruits were equipped with training at the time at which they were most motivated to join the scheme’.108, In other interventions, PSs were recruited at or around the same time. Propositional statement Payment to peer supporters reduces the likelihood of programme failure without necessarily ensuring the likelihood of programme success. Cross-case analysis is a method that involves the in-depth exploration of similarities and differences across cases with a view to supporting empirical generalisability and theoretical predictions. In the Glasgow Gay Men project ‘emotional issues such as relationships’ were considered difficult.81 The challenges of discussing difficult topics, however, were not specifically related to recruitment in our studies, so there is little evidence directly supporting this statement. Political Science and International Relations, https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412957397.n98, Case Study Research in Business and Management, Deductive-Nomological Model of Explanation, Paradigm Plurality in Case Study Research, Research Questions, Types of Retrospective Case Study, Contentious Issues in Case Study Research, Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: ATLAS.ti, Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: CAITA (Computer-Assisted Interpretive Textual Analysis), Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: Kwalitan, Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: MAXQDA 2007, Computer-Based Analysis of Qualitative Data: NVIVO, Comparing the Case Study With Other Methodologies, Conceptual Model in a Qualitative Research Project, Conceptual Model in a Quantitative Research Project, CCPA – Do Not Sell My Personal Information. In this situation there was no flexibility to modify the training that was delivered according to a preprepared training manual. Liaison midwives worked with colleagues to facilitate acceptance of the volunteers, reduce potential opposition from colleagues and provide access to new mothers.108, Alternatively other professionals may assume this recruitment role: ‘Home economists assumed the responsibility for identifying potential peer educators. For example, in the Diabetes Sharing Stories programme: ‘. Within the clusters, ‘successful venues’ were often identified as either places with which peer-support recipients were already familiar and utilised (e.g. Some had positive experiences of training, whereas others had negative experiences that could cause concern about ability to understand the information and develop the skills. . a church setting, such as that used in Smoking in Ethnic Minorities): ‘The church’s acknowledged leadership role in the African American community and the trust that churches engender make churches promising venues for health-promotion programs’.129, Institutional settings present both advantages and disadvantages because they embody their own sets of norms about behaviour. Cross-Case Analysis Methods onto the Literature Review Process Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie (Corresponding author) ... Keywords: Literature review, Synthesis, Data analysis, Data displays, Cross-case analysis, Within-case analysis . Peer supporters recognised and valued certain outcomes from their training. Authors of other clusters highlighted that needs assessment helped them to develop culturally appropriate materials, for example in programme participants’ own language: The sharing stories model was developed specifically to address the needs of limited English speakers with diabetes living in deprived inner city areas.125, . For some of the clusters a cultural needs assessment was an explicit exercise. Propositional statement Aligning peer-support programmes with national policy and advertising campaigns maximises organisational support and helps programmes to become embedded within existing provision. Use of the case study in the natural and social sciences began in the early 20th century with the establishment of the concept of a case history in medicine. They may also relate to altruism (i.e. Propositional statement Training that is tailored to meet individual and group learning needs is perceived as more relevant by peer supporters. These were carried out both formally, using questionnaires,79 (Advisory Network #8) and informally through discussion and reflection.125 Conducting an assessment of PSs’ learning needs meant that training could be developed or tailored to meet specific learning needs identified by participants, such as confidence and self-esteem (Advisory Network #8), as well as the goals of the programme (Advisory Network #8 and #9). . The nature of such compromises may well determine the extent of the success or failure of the programme. Participants attending the Advisory Network sessions spoke, at length, about the importance of addressing logistical barriers to peer support. This stage refers to all activities that take place in order to prepare, inform and equip PSs to fulfil their role. Propositional statement When cultural needs are taken into consideration during the design stages of peer-support interventions, via formal or informal assessments, programmes are better aligned with community values, increasing the potential that they become embedded in social practice. Payment of lay health workers for both training and subsequent leading of health promotion classes was considered a critical success factor in a study focused on the Latino community in Los Angeles.118. The optimal timing of training was dependent on the pattern of recruitment of PSs. Case study research has a long history within the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, dating back to the early 1920's. Using gay bars to promote safer sex, for example, was not effective in the Glasgow Gay Men project, with the gay community in Glasgow ‘representing a relatively closed social environment . Peer supporters are more interested in training when they can clearly see how it will benefit them. . not restricted by lack of literacy). low literacy individuals. The definitions were then piloted on a subset of context–mechanism–outcomes (CMOs) to produce a final definition and list of components for each stage. supporting data illustrating the evidence base for the propositional statements. Communication style and values congruent with the Latino culture were also considered, including: familismo; collectivism; simpatía; personalismo; and respeto.126. Please note that some file types are incompatible with some mobile and tablet devices. . Although the idea of experiential learning appears to be new, it embodies the notion of drawing upon experiential knowledge with the outcome of enablement. Methods and levels of stakeholder involvement varied. Although building on existing knowledge appears to be a new theme, it accords with the idea of building upon existing knowledge in the community when conducting needs assessments and developing appropriate recruitment strategies. For example, the Smoking in Schools programme was delivered within the school setting,128 whereas the Breastfeeding cluster was delivered both within the hospital and in community settings, often via breastfeeding drop-in centres. . . This working paper outlines the conceptual framework and case studies comprising the research project Disrupted Histories, Recovered Pasts. Recruitment is a way of valuing and involving people (artwork: Sarah Smizz). When this happened it created an environment in which PSs felt that their experiential knowledge was recognised and valued. The structure that is thus formed is known as a Holliday junction. There was limited evidence in the published studies to suggest that pride in being chosen was a motivation for recruitment: ‘PS felt pride in being nominated, “It was novel to miss school for the two training days and the follow up sessions” ’.128. . Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2015 Feb. (Public Health Research, No. Building relationships, valuing the potential in others can be an asset that aids recruitment. . An analysis that examines themes, similarities, and differences across cases is referred to as a cross-case analysis. Call it trying things out; imagine; what if? They explained that sharing this information during recruitment gave a clear indication of what would be expected, thereby helping people to make more informed decisions about becoming involved. Tailoring the individual training sessions to the needs and pace of individuals and to make the best use of the group dynamics was felt to be helpful. Although the original recruitment model was followed initially: . . They contacted agencies and organizations that could identify prospective peer educators and then personally contacted suggested candidates, described the program, and elicited the candidates’ interest . Some individuals did not wish to participate in programs that were developed and delivered by fellow church members’.129. These PSs also appeared to value being able to draw upon their experiences: The would-be peer educators were highly motivated to engage in the project. supported by lay health workers who already had employed positions in these roles. Propositional statement When PSs contribute to the development of the training programme they have ownership of the process, which increases engagement with the intervention. Two midwives with an interest in BF [breastfeeding] were attached to the scheme as liaison midwives (LMs). Propositional statement Potential recruits may see involvement in peer support as offering access to social networks. . This aligns with Nutbeam’s assets-based model for HL.15,16 For example, authors of the Diabetes Sharing Stories cluster explained how the intervention built on common cultural beliefs, attitudes and behaviours – rather than trying to ‘remedy deficiencies’,79 whereas authors of the Breastfeeding cluster stated: ‘Bottom up changes in the service model places emphasis upon understanding the local culture and implementing change in a creative, systemic and culturally sensitive way’.127. some already had specific skills or activities in mind (such as walking, holistic therapies, writing, art, t’ai chi, yoga) others were just keen to try something new or get involved with an AB project’ (AB, Altogether Better).113. In most cases if 2 studies on the same topic come to different conclusions, you assume the trial of the more valid type is correct. The provision of payment specifically for participating in training may relate only to an increased likelihood of completion of training. These variables were unavailable because no beforehand information on what the archetypes could be was available. . Context, mechanisms and outcomes for training stage. They agreed that ‘being valued to be part of it and being trusted to be part of it’ was key to becoming a peer supporter (Advisory Network #11) (Figure 16). Training needs analyses were carried out prior to, or, in some instances, at the start of, training. Peer supporters’ self-esteem was maintained when training was designed to recognise and build on their pre-existing attributes and to make use of their qualities and expertise (Advisory Network #8). . For example, within the breastfeeding cluster some project teams undertook local cultural needs assessments (including interviews with members of the community) to understand cultural beliefs relating to breastfeeding and in particular how they may impact upon the way in which the programme was delivered. In some cases this means ensuring adequate provision is made for accompanying children: ‘It was crucial that the times and format of the courses were flexible and that adequate provision was made for accompanying children’.123 In another situation when PSs were adolescents it meant providing training at a venue with access to a safe outdoor space where they could exercise at break times, as well as providing healthy snack and drinks at meal times. This might include stakeholder involvement (who was involved in the design process, how they were involved, where involvement took place and at what stage? Case studies synthesis: a thematic, cross-case, and narrative synthesis worked example Aligning programmes with broader national policy initiatives and advertising campaigns was suggested as one way to ensure organisational support. The first two by Grybovych (2012) and Slocum, Backman, and Baldwin (2012) respectively report research processes related to specific projects, while the last seeks to provide an analysis associated with cross-case study research. Similarly, the UK Feeding Initiative funded breastfeeding programmes to consolidate and expand as part of a national programme.123 The Smoking Fag Ends cluster built on, and aligned its efforts with, national activity to maximise marketing and recruitment to the programme: ‘I remember a couple of years ago we got wind that nationally there was going to be a campaign which would be targeting mothers of young children . 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