Ask your question. Erdkunde is a comprehensive German word which stands for science of the earth in relation to nature and history. It is an essential academic field for all walks of life. He claimed that the central principle of geography is “the relation of all phenomena and forms of nature to the human race”. To him geography had a right to be considered a sharply defined science of kindred dignity with the others. e concept of the region pr esented by the Israeli geographer Dov Nir (1990) is based on system s theory. (2) The second included the distribution and movements of water, sea and atmosphere: the bases of human life. Geography maintained the connection between his earlier field of studies and his ultimate interests. Ritter sought for relations or connections, between sets or phenomena in the same area and between one place and another. His views of science sprang from his firm belief in God as the planner of the universe. He served the department of geography of Berlin University for 39 years. Space relations were basically emphasised. In 1814, Ritter joined the University of Gottingen and studied geography, history, pedagogy, physics, chemistry, mineralogy and botany. It is in this unpublished manuscript that Ritter expressed his strong orientation towards the inductive method. Hence history and geography must always remain inseparable. His stressed that “the outer shell of the earth is the area of geographical study and not the entire earth”. About the universal and regional laws in geography his opinion was that “the earth itself must be asked for its laws”. Image Guidelines 4. He realised the magnitude of the work he had begun. 1. The continued use of continents as major regional entities not only for the teaching of geography, but also for the formulation of concepts has retarded the progress of geographical scholarship. Find an answer to your question father of systematic geography 1. It is a field that is responsible for analyzing the relationship between plant life and the terrestrial environment. In turn, this specialty is responsible for grouping the different species that exist according to their genetic relationship. Ritter’s humankind-oriented geography clearly states: ‘The Earth and its inhabitants stand in the closest reciprocal relation and one cannot be truly presented in all its relationships without the other. Roger Tomlinson, the acknowledged father of GIS, led the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development team that developed what became known as the Canada Geographic Information System. Rousseau in his novel Emile (1762) devised a new educational procedure which contradicted the traditional method, as the purpose of the new procedure was to encourage a child to develop inborn potentialities. The first attribute was topographical, i.e., it deals with natural divisions of the earth surface. The Polar Regions represent mid-night, where land and people are locked in eternal sleep. But this work was not published. An important benefit of the regional plan is that it provides for the maintenance of a greenbelt comprising 1.8 million acres of rural and conservation land. 1. Father's Day Timeline A century of celebrating dads. Eratosthenes is commonly considered to be the âFather of Geography,â and in fact, he quite literally wrote the book on the subject in the third century BCE. Ritter regarded “the earth as a whole as an ‘organism’ and the continents as ‘individuals’ or as ‘organs’ “. The concept of regional individuality, a development from the ideas of Zeune and Forster, combined with the concept of a ganzheit or whole derived from Kant, became one of the motifs of the Erdkunde. ‘He saw he must not just describe the Earth’s surface and subdivide it into natural regions, but he must understand, it as the fundamental cause of events’. (3) The material conditions were described as the geographical aspect of natural history; this covered the distribution of minerals, plants and animals. In reaction to those who had specialised in systematic studies and never reached the actual formulations of interrelated factors in areas, Ritter urged them first to study the areas filled with interrelated phenomena. Terms of Service 7. Log in. He averred that there were differences between the continents. He attempted to formulate generalisations concerning the continents or Erdteile; and their population. Hence, history and geography must always remain inseparable”. Ritter defined geography as an empirical science, rather than one deduced either from rational principles of philosophy or from apriori theories of general geography. Father-Son and Father-Daughter Athletes Athletes following in their fathers' footsteps. The first presidential proclamation honoring fathers was issued in 1966 when President Lyndon Johnson designated the third Sunday in June as Father's Day. history. Geography is a basic subject for all human beings to learn. 6. Types of regions 1. 5. Hence, Romans made major contribution to historical and regional geography. Paternal Instinct. Ritter’s preparation for research covered an extremely wide field, in which on the one hand natural sciences (particularly the observational methods of nature study) predominated, but in which, on the other hand, his interest was increasingly human problem, i.e. He believed that the earth was an organism made, even in its smallest details, with divine intent, to fit the needs of man to perfection. Both Humboldt and Ritter laid great stress on the unity of nature, though one has a scientific and other a religious approach. But, in the west, there was variety of environment and history, and in the diverse south (Europe) too history was rich, studded with the efforts and achievements of Egyptians, Carthageans, Greeks, Romans, Gauls and Iberians. He believed, as did Vidal de la Blache much later, that earth and its inhabitants stand in the closest reciprocal relations, and one cannot be truly presented in all its relationships without the other. Ritter saw all of his studies of “the earth and man as revealing more and more of God’s plan”. Ritter was highly impressed by his versatility in observing natural and human phenomena in different parts of the world. Ritter emphasised on the relative values of wet and dry boundaries, such as rivers or mountains, which he conceived of as a means towards the real purpose of geography the understanding of the content of areas. As a matter of fact, many other branches of geography normally fall under human geography. The fundamental principle evolved by Ritter was “unity in diversity”. regional geography under stand the region as a social con- struct. Thus, his approach was teleological. In 1810, Ritter prepared a more complete systematic geography of the world, a ‘Handbuch der Physischen Geographie, but it was never published probably because of the criticism offered by Von Buch. This is a main branch in geography and it mainly covers studies of the human race. Account Disable 11. He stressed the idea of land and water hemispheres, the distinction between the rates of heating and cooling of land and water, the difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres in their proportion of land and water. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the contribution of Carl Ritter to the development of modern geography. The individual area had its own particular determined value. Ritterâs regional geography was centred on humankind; the aim was to study the Earthâs surface from an anthropocentric standpoint; to seek to relate humankind and nature and to see the relationship between humankind and his history and the ground on which he lived. Ritter’s meeting with Von Humboldt in 1807 was significant in many ways because Humboldt clearly demonstrated to him the importance of Earth conditions to humankind which had a profound impact on the scholarship of Ritter. His view of science sprang from his firm belief in God as the planner of the universe. Hegel (1770-1831). Content Filtration 6. Ritter was, on the other hand, to a considerable extent a regional geographer. The major geographical concepts of Ritter may be summed up as follows: 1. Geography, according to Ritter, deals with local condition (Lokalverhaltnisse) and embraces the attributes of a place with respect to topical, formal and material characteristics: (1) The first attribute was topographical, i.e. He was one of the founders of regional geography and stressed that geography should first concentrate on the study of all the interrelated phenomena to be found in each of all the areas of the world, and then on their basis systematic studies could be made on the relations of individual type of phenomena. He is widely respected as one of the founders of modern geography.Alexander von Humboldt's travels, experiments, and knowledge transformed western science in the nineteenth century. Thus, he was of the opinion that one must look to nature for its principles rather than to evolve a theory of natural divisions of the lands. Ritter was born in Quedlinburg in 1779. Report a Violation, Short Biography of Alfred Hettner | Geographer, Biography of Ellsworth Huntington| Geography. Ritter, in his Erdkunde, conceptualized regional geography as contrasted with systematic geography of Humboldt. He divided the natural features of earth as mountains, rivers etc. ‘Areal phenomena are so interrelated as to give rise to the uniqueness of areas as individual units.’ Ritter, therefore, insisted that a real synthesis and description must precede the world-wide analysis of particular sets of features and phenomena. This normally involves their backgrounds, how they interact and the perceptions that they have for various ideologies affecting them. 2019 âAmerican imperial expansion and area studies without geographyâ Journal of Historical Geography 66, 43-54 BARNES, T. J. However, the Planning Commission of India is recently is now âNational Institution for Transforming Indiaâ or simply NITI Aayog. Thus, he combined a basic teleological standpoint with a most critical scientific precision, and remarked that ‘my system builds on facts, not on philosophical arguments’. After one year as Professor of History and Geography at the gymnasium in Frankfurt, Ritter was given the double position in the military college and the University of Frankfurt. Carl Ritter, Contribution of Carl Ritter to Modern Geography, Geographers, Geography. Copyright 10. He did not regard the shape of continents as accidental but rather as determined by God, so that their form and location enabled them to play the role designed by God for the development of human kind. In his lectures before the Berlin Academy of Sciences (one in 1826 and the others in 1850), Ritter attempted to describe the size, form, construction and climatic conditions of the different continents. Carl Ritter is believed to have stated that he was teaching a new scientific geography ‘in contrast to the traditional lifeless summary of facts about countries and cities, mingled with all sorts of scientific incongruities’. Prohibited Content 3. In 1818, Ritter was appointed as Professor of History at the University of Frankfurt. This purpose must be found most particularly in humankind (highest of Earth creatures), the only one who could conceive of an organisation of the whole. Ritter repeatedly expounded his views on the nature and problems of geography in methodological papers, Humboldt’s numerous discussions of such questions were scattered through his general writings. World Regional Geography. He went to Switzerland and Italy, etc. The Royal Geographical Society London—1830, 5. One of these books provided a brief study of the systematic geography of Europe which was reviewed in France. ‘The collection of facts was not an end in itself, the systematisation and comparison of data, region by region, would lead to a recognition of unity in apparent diversity.’. His view that ‘among all the creatures on the Earth only man could comprehend the existence of a divine plan and so could adjust his life to it and make maximum use of god’s gifts’, was also criticised as valueless and unscientific because it did not take into account the concept of struggle and survival. Sectoral Planning Sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programs aimed at development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure, and services. The main work of these societies was to give support for expeditions and for their publication of yearbooks and journals which included maps and other material from expeditions. Ritter emphasised that the enormous multiplicity of observations must be organised according to the chorological principle which should be considered both in a horizontal and a vertical sense. In geography: Influence of the social sciences. Humboldt is believed to have described Ritter’s Erdkunde as the most inspired work of this kind (comparative geography) and further commented – ‘our country has yielded – it is the first work in which is presented the influence which the surface-view has had on the peoples and their fates.’ Humboldt also admired Ritter’s work on Asia and added that such an important work had not appeared in thirty years. Systematise extensive material: 1 entire earth ” order in nature as a science that studies the habitat plants. 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